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decoration modern 2018 For other uses, see.

A bindi (: बिंदी, from बिन्दु, meaning "point, drop, dot or small particle") is a colored dot worn on the centre of the forehead, originally by and women.

The word dates back to decoration the hymn of creation known as in the. is considered the point at which creation begins and may become. It is also described as "the sacred symbol of the cosmos in its unmanifested state".

A bindi is a bright dot of some colour applied in the centre of the forehead close to the worn in (particularly amongst Hindus in,,,, and ) and Southeast Asia among,,, and Hindus.

A similar marking is also worn by babies and children in and, like in South and Southeast Asia, represents the opening of the third eye. Bindi in,, and is associated with, and is known as the chakra. is the point or dot around which the is created, representing the universe. The bindi has a historical and cultural presence in the region of.

Contents

Religious significance[]

See also:,,, and

Traditionally, the area between the eyebrows (where the bindi is placed) is said to be the sixth,, the seat of "concealed wisdom". The bindi is said to retain energy and strengthen concentration. The bindi also represents the. The of the Rig Veda, the earliest known Sanskrit text, mentions the word.

The is symbolised by a with two petals, and corresponds to the colours violet, indigo or deep blue, though it is traditionally described as white. It is at this point that the two sides Nadi and Pingala are said to terminate and merge with the central channel Sushumna, signifying the end of duality, the characteristic of being dual (e.g. light and dark, or male and female). The for this chakra is the syllable OM, and the presiding deity is, who is a half male, half female Shiva/Shakti. The Shakti goddess of Ajna is called Hakini. In metaphysics, is considered the dot or point at which creation begins and may become. It is also described as "the sacred symbol of the cosmos in its unmanifested state". Bindu is the point around which the is created, representing the universe. Ajna (along with ), is known as the chakra and is linked to the [] which may inform a model of its envisioning. The pineal gland is a light sensitive gland that produces the hormone which regulates sleep and waking up, and is also postulated to be the production site of the psychedelic, the only known hallucinogen endogenous to the human body. Ajna's key issues involve balancing the higher and lower selves and trusting inner guidance. Ajna's inner aspect relates to the access of intuition. Mentally, Ajna deals with visual consciousness. Emotionally, Ajna deals with clarity on an intuitive level.

Goddess Tara depicted with known as inner gaze. Bhrumadhya is the point in the centre of the forehead commonly referred to as the third eye, or centre of consciousness.

In Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, bindi is associated with Ajna Chakra and. Divinities in these religions are typically depicted with Bhrumadhya, in meditative pose with their eyes nearly closed show the gaze focused between eyebrows, other spot being the tip of the nose—Naasikagra. The very spot between the eyebrows known as Bhrumadhya is where one focuses his/her sight, so that it helps concentration. In South Asia, bindi is worn by women of all religious dispositions and is not restricted to religion or region. However, the Islamic Research Foundation, located in India, says "wearing a bindi or mangalsutra is a sign of Hindu women. The traditional bindi still represents and preserves the symbolic significance that is integrated into Indian mythology in many parts of India."

Relief from, 2nd century B.C. As decoration only female figures were marked with during this period.

The red bindi has multiple meanings which are all simultaneously valid:

  • One simple interpretation is that it is a cosmetic mark used to enhance beauty.
  • Archaeology has yielded clay female figurines from the Indus Valley with red pigment on the forehead and hair parting. It is unclear wheter this held any religious or cultural significance.
  • In Hinduism, the color red represents honor, love, and prosperity, hence it was worn to symbolise these aspects.
  • In meditation, this very spot between the eyebrows (Bhrumadhya) is where one focuses his/her sight, so that it helps concentration. Most images of Buddha or Hindu divinities in meditative poses with their eyes nearly closed show the gaze focused between the eyebrows (another spot being the tip of the nose—naasikagra).
  • Swami Muktananda writes that 'auspicious or sandalwood paste is applied (between the eyebrows) out of respect for the inner Guru. It is the Guru's seat. There is a chakra (centre of spiritual energy within the human body) here called Ajna (Aadnyaa) chakra, meaning 'Command centre'. Here is received the Guru's command to go higher in Sadhana (spiritual practice) to the 'Sahasraar' (seventh and final chakra) which leads to Self-realisation. The flame seen at the eyebrow is called 'Guru Jyoti'.
  • The encyclopaedic Dictionary of Yoga reports that this 'Ajna Chakra' is also called the 'Third eye'. This centre is connected with the sacred syllable '' and presiding, is ''. On activating this centre, the aspirant overcomes '' (the ego or sense of individuality), the last hoe on the path of spirituality.

Traditional application method[]

Bride with decorative bindis and maang tikka between hair parting where married women apply. Ornamental bindis were made and sold by workers known as.

A traditional bindi is red or maroon in colour. A pinch of vermilion powder is applied skilfully with a ring-finger to make a perfect red dot. It takes considerable practice to achieve the perfect round shape by hand. A small annular disc aids application for beginners. First, they apply a sticky wax paste through the empty centre of the disc. This is then covered with kumkum or vermilion and then the disc is removed to get a perfect round bindi. Various materials such as, sandal, 'aguru',, 'kasturi', kumkum (made of red turmeric) and colour the dot. Saffron ground together with can also work. Traditionally they are green in colour with red dot in the middle. The bindi is no longer restricted in colour or shape.

Historically, the ornamental bindi spangle consists of a small piece of lac over which is smeared vermilion, while above it a piece of mica or thin glass is fixed for ornament. Women wore large spangles set in gold with a border of jewels if they could afford it. The bindi was made and sold by lac workers known as. In Hinduism, it's part of the Suhāg or lucky trousseau at marriages and is affixed to the girl’s forehead on her wedding and thereafter always worn. Unmarried girls optionally wore small ornamental spangles on their foreheads. A widow was not allowed to wear bindi or any ornamentation associated with married women. In modern times, self-adhesive bindis are available in various materials, usually made of felt or thin metal and adhesive on the other side. These are simple to apply, disposable substitutes for older lac tikli bindis. Sticker bindis come in many colours, designs, materials, and sizes.

Courtesan as with ornamental bindi spangle, c. 1750

There are different regional variations of the bindi. In Maharashtra a large shaped bindi is worn with a smaller black dot underneath or above, associated with and represented by crescent moon, they are commonly known as Chandrakor in this region, outside Maharashtra they are popularly known as Marathi bindi. In Bengal region a large round red bindi is worn, brides in this region are often decorated with Alpana design on forehead and cheeks, along with bindi. In southern India a smaller red bindi is worn with a white tilak at the bottom, another common type is a red shaped bindi. In Rajasthan the bindi is often worn round, long shaped bindi are also common, as well as the crescent moon on some occasions. Decorative bindis have become popular among women in South Asia, regardless of religious background. Bindis are staple and symbolic for women in the Indian subcontinent.

In addition to the bindi, in India, a mark in the parting of the hair just above the forehead is worn by married women as commitment to long-life and well-being of their husbands. During all Hindu marriage ceremonies, the groom applies sindoor in the part in the bride's hair.

Apart from their cosmetic use, bindis have found a modern medical application in India. Iodine patch bindis have often been used among women in north-west Maharashtra to battle iodine deficiency.

Related customs in other Asian regions[]

A dancer with a white Bindi

See also: and

In, Bindis are worn by and Hindus of. Historically, it was worn by many kingdoms in. Bindis are also decorated on wedding brides and grooms of and other parts of, even worn by non-Hindus. It is worn for cultural purposes because Indonesia was once ruled by Indianized Hindu kingdoms, thus the culture still preserves until today. The color of the Bindis in Indonesia usually worn by are usually white rather than red as in India.

Modern use[]

Bindis and other religious affiliated markings are worn by recent Hindu converts like

Bindis are popular outside the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia as well. They are sometimes worn purely for decorative purpose or style statement without any religious or cultural affiliation. Decorative and ornamental bindis were introduced to other parts of the world by immigrants from the Indian subcontinent. International celebrities such as,,, and many others have been seen wearing bindis. The appropriateness of such uses has been disputed. Reacting to Gomez's appearance in her song,, Hindu leader said that the bindi has religious significance and should not be used as a fashion accessory, but Indian actress praised Gomez's choice as "an embrace of Indian culture".

Alternative terms[]

A bindi can be called:

  • Phot (literally meaning a small pressing mark) in
  • Tip (literally meaning "a pressing") in
  • Tikuli (literally meaning "a small ") in
  • Chandlo in meaning moon shape
  • in
  • Tika in
  • Kunkuma or Bottu or Tilaka in
  • Tilakaya in
  • Tikli in
  • Kunkoo कुंकू or Tikali टिकली in
  • Tikili in
  • Bindi in meaning long red mark
  • Pottu or Kunkumam or Netri or Tilakam' in and
  • Bottu or Tilakam in
  • Bottu in
  • Alpana are the small decorative design over the eyebrows and cheeks used in marriage or festivals.
  • Nandek is a term erroneously used to describe a bindi in. It may contain connotations although not in most cases.
  • "Tikli" in
  • attended by Sita Tara and Bhrikuti. India. ca. 8th century.

  • Kalpasutra Manuscript, folio dated c.1375-1400. Miniature showing the birth of Mahavira (Vardhamana)

  • Green Tara as Prajnyaparamita, ca. 11th century AD.

  • Kalpasutra Manuscript folio dated 1472. recto image of Trishala's grief.

  • Goddess flanked by Gaṇeśa and Kārttikeya,.

  • Courtesan as Radha with ornamental bindi spangle and maang tikka. ca. 1750

  • Actress wearing a green bindi.

  • Lady with a bindi holding a wine cup and rose. ca. 1701

  • Idealized portrait of Princess Padmavati with maang tikka. ca. 1701

  • Hindu bride wearing Bindi and Groom with.

  • woman wearing a bindi.

  • Hindu bride with decorated forehead

  • Bride with decorated forehead

  • Modern stick-on bindi

  • Bindi are often used as decoration or as a style statement.

See also[]

References[]

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  2. ^ Khanna 1979: p. 171
  3. ^ (1991).. SUNY Press. p. 21.  . 
  4. Xiaoou, Yu (10 September 2014).. ChinaCulture.org. Retrieved 16 February 2018
  5. ^ Mercier (2007). p. 267.
  6. ^ Shakya, pp. 82–83
  7. Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor, by Keat Gin Ooi p. 642
  8. Hindu-Buddhist Architecture in Southeast Asia by Daigorō Chihara p. 226
  9. .. 13 October 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  10. M. Kenoyer, Jonathan (1998). Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilization (1st ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 186.  . 
  11. Pintchman, Tracy (2007). Women's Lives, Women's Rituals in the Hindu Tradition. Oxford. pp. 90–97.  . 
  12. From Finite to Infinite, by Swami Muktananda, SYDA Foundation, S. Fallsburg, New York, 1989, pp. 88–89
  13. Encyclopedic Dictionary of Yoga, by Georg Fuerstein, Paragon House Publishers, New York, 1990, p. 15
  14. . About.com. Retrieved 9 January 2012. 
  15. Bahadur, Om Lata (1996). The book of Hindu festivals and ceremonies (3rd ed.). New Delhi: UBS Publishers Distributors ltd. p. 168.  . 
  16. Khadi and Village Industries Commission, Government of India
  17. ^ Parvesh Handa, "Home Beauty Clinic", Pustak Mahal,  
  18. Priyabala Shah (April 1986) "Tilaka: Hindu marks on the forehead", p.88
  19. Gwynne, Paul (2009).. Maiden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. 
  20. Dhar, Shobha (11 April 2015).. TNN. The Times of India. Retrieved 25 July 2015. 
  21. . sadananda.com
  22. , Nguoi Viet Online, 11 November 2011, Retrieved 22 November 2011
  23. , elperiodic.com, 17 November 2011. Retrieved 22 November 2011
  24. . BBC News. 23 September 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  25. . Punjab Newsline. 6 October 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  26. .. 7 January 2002. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
  27. .. 21 May 2008. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
  28. .. 2 February 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
  29. Sieczkowski, Cavan (16 April 2013)... Retrieved 25 September 2015. 
  30. DelliCarpini Jr., Gregory (22 May 2013)... Retrieved 25 September 2015. 
  31. . MSN India. 10 October 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 

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